Monday, February 3, 2020

Critical summaries (language, culture& society) (langustics Essay

Critical summaries (language, culture& society) (langustics department) - Essay Example Starting from 60s, researchers indicated inequalities among students who attend Universities. At that time 80% were white students and only 10% were black students (Francis, Kelly and Bell, 1994). The main focus of this article is the role linguistic speech codes play in students’ performance. Bernstein differentiates between ‘restricted speech code’ of low class of students and ‘elaborated code’ which refers to students from higher class. Thus, a set of words used by the latter group of students is more flexible and meets the requirements of academic education. A further discussion refers to Deconstruction theory, which relates texts of the world as being reflected in our consciousness. The authors of the article make an attempt to argue to the existent scientific canon of approaches to relation of students’ performance and language codes. They claim about a necessity to develop heterogeneous students’ body set in the limits of â€Å"p eople's history and experience situated in geography of other identities, peoples, cultures, and then to study how, despite their differences, they have overlapped one another, and are mixed together† (Francis, Kelly and Bell, 1994). This article is a modern perspective on pedagogical challenge on a new role language plays in the education process. It is not an indicator of socio-cultural differences, but a facilitator to overcome these differences and to integrate them. Language and development   In the article â€Å"Model Standards for English Language Development: National trends and a Local Response† by Terrence G. Wiley and Elizabeth Hartung-Cole, current tendencies in English learning for non-native speakers of English are discussed. On the one hand, English standards developed on the international level take into account the issue of language diversity. On the other hand, this is not enough and it is relevant to develop standards especially for non-native speak ers of English. The issue of what language standard really means has been discussed by researchers for a long period of time. Nevertheless, a crucial importance of language standard can’t be questioned. The authors introduce a concept of ‘over-prespecification’ between the curriculum and learning process (Wiley and Hartung-Cole, 2002). This concept implies a necessity to take into account external knowledge and abilities of students. Current development of English standard should be conducted in a socio-cultural context. Therefore, the authors agree with the fact that administrative training of teachers and gaining proper background knowledge about non-native speakers of English are crucial for further development of English standards on national and on local levels. Not individual students and the level of their performance should be concernd, but heterogeneous body of students. These tendencies are caused by the world’s tendencies for globalization and o verall integration. Consequently, it is relevant to develop universal model standard efficient for native and non-native speakers of English. Multilingualism and Bilingualism   The article â€Å"Bilingualism, Cultural Transmutation, and Fields of Coexistence: California's Spanish Language Legacy† by Sara Garcia is of high relevance nowadays. Different nations tend to integration and successful coexistence. On the example of English Only programs in California a national attitude to bilinguals in America is discussed. A language behavior of Spanish/English bilinguals is developed under the

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