Saturday, May 23, 2020

Rhetorical Analysis Of Elizabeth s Henrietta

Three Sections Argument Quotes Rhetorical Strategy Life (1-11) Discrimination, ulterior motives and misguided treatment impacted Henrietta just as much as her cancer. Henrietta Lacks suffers immensely throughout her short life, due to discrimination, her disease, and the ineffective and crude treatments applied in a drastic attempt to save her life. Additionally, the medical staff saw her as a source of precious material beyond her needs as a patient. Imagery:â€Å"Sadie gasped: The skin from Henrietta’s breasts to her pelvis was charred a deep black from the radiation. The rest of her body was its natural shade—more the color of fawn than coal.† (48) Imagery/Parallelism: â€Å"Doctors examined her inside and out, pressing on her stomach, inserting new catheters into her bladder, fingers into her vagina and anus, needles into her veins.† (40) Word Choice: â€Å"‘Henrietta is still a miserable specimen,’ they wrote. ‘She groans.’ ‘She is constantly nauseated and claims she vomits everything she eats.’ ‘Patient acutely upset†¦ very anxious.’ ‘As far as I can see we are doing all that can be done.’ (66) The author liberally uses Pathos to characterize Henrietta’s suffering, using descriptive imagery to convey the negative effects of her treatments. Additionally, the author uses Parallelism to place emphasis on the invasive procedures that she had endured. Quotes from the medical staff, beyond affirming her suffering, also demonstrate a clearly dismissive attitude towards Henrietta, referringShow MoreRelatedLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 PagesAcknowledgments For the 1993 edition: The following friends and colleagues deserve thanks for their help and encouragement with this project: Clifford Anderson, Hellan Roth Dowden, Louise Dowden, Robert Foreman, Richard Gould, Kenneth King, Marjorie Lee, Elizabeth Perry, Heidi Wackerli, Perry Weddle, Tiffany Whetstone, and the following reviewers: David Adams, California State Polytechnic University; Stanley Baronett, Jr., University of Nevada-Las Vegas; Shirley J. Bell, University of Arkansas at Monticello;

Monday, May 18, 2020

The Task of an International Marketer - 2314 Words

The International Marketers task is more complicated than that of the domestic marketer because the international marketer must deal with at least two levels of uncontrollable uncertainty instead of one. Discuss. Introduction Domestic marketing deals with any marketing activities within the boundaries of a nation. This should be directly contrasted with the term International marketing, which refers to all marketing activities that go beyond the confines of a domestic economy. For Zimbabwe, this would be consumers, workers, businesses, and governments that lie beyond the Zimbabwean national boundaries. How both the international marketer and the domestic marketer should know the 4Ps (Product, price, promotion and place) or the†¦show more content†¦This is particularly true of foodstuffs. Sadza in Zimbabwe, a staple food made from maize meal, would not go down well in United Kingdom or United States of America. Only products of a more technical nature, like computers on the other hand, have a universal appeal. The marketer can study culture in a number of ways including the anthropological approach, Maslows hierarchy of needs, the self reference criterion, diffusion theory, high and low context culture, and perception approaches. Culture itself is made up of a number of learned characteristics including aesthetics, education, religion and attitudes and values. One of the principal researchers on culture and its consequences is Hofstede, who, as a result of his studies, offers many insights and guides to marketers when dealing with diverse nationalities. Ignoring differences, or even similarities, in culture can lead to marketers especially international marketers making and executing decisions with possible disastrous results. Trade agreements Since 1945, there have been eight major trade agreements. The first five were bilateral agreements, where only two countries made treaties with one another. These were not an efficient way to reduce tariffs, as other countries were able to take advantage of the spillover effects of the reductions. All subsequent trade negotiations have been multilateral, or involving many countries. All talks took place under the frameworkShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Culture On International Marketing Communication1486 Words   |  6 Pagesfactors to support marketing communication in the proposed markets and pre-requisites for cross-cultural communication. †¢ Culture-related barriers to marketing and how to approach this issue in order to achieve success in international markets. †¢ Effects of culture on international marketing communication and the need for cultural awareness. †¢ A three-step approach to successful cross-cultural communication. â€Æ' Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY............................................................ 1Read MoreFive Steps in the Process of Building Channels for International Distribution958 Words   |  4 Pagesstrength, (3) managerial stability and capability, and (4) the nature and reputation of the business. Emphasis is usually placed on either the actual or potential productivity of the middleman. Setting policies and making checklists are easy; the real task is implementing them. The major problems are locating information to aid in the selection and choice of specific middlemen, and discovering middlemen available to handle one s merchandise. Firms seeking overseas representation should compile aRead More2.5 New Positioning Strategy Of The Local Market Essay1591 Words   |  7 PagesThis is because the product is the latest in the market and contains innovative feature such as deep tissue relief and loosening stiff muscles in the neck (OSIM, 216). By positioning itself as a high-price company, they establish a perceived value. TASK 3 3.1 New Healthcare Product for OSIM OSIM’s new health care product that will make the company attain competitive advantage is 3D Massage Chair. This is an innovative product that will appeal to the target market. It contains the following features:Read MoreEssay on Cultural Influences Of Consumer Behavior1300 Words   |  6 Pagesdecisions and activities connected with the choosing, buying, using and disposing of goods and services. Marketers must pay very close attention to consumer behavior that occurs before the purchase and after the particular product has been used. Studying consumer habits is one of the steps in marketing search and analysis. In addition to other basic principles of consumer buying habits, marketers also need to study the decision and actions of real people. Until recent history the study of consumerRead MoreCultural Influences of Consumer Behavior Essay examples1291 Words   |  6 Pagesdecisions and activities connected with the choosing, buying, using and disposing of goods and servic es. Marketers must pay very close attention to consumer behavior that occurs before the purchase and after the particular product has been used. Studying consumer habits is one of the steps in marketing search and analysis. In addition to other basic principles of consumer buying habits, marketers also need to study the decision and actions of real people. Until recent history the study of consumerRead MoreInternational Marketing: Factors to be Considered in Foreign Markets1657 Words   |  7 Pages1.The International marketing is defined as performance of business activities including price, promotions, product and distribution decision and then the task of marketing research is to systematically collect data, process it in to valuable information which is vital for marketing decision. The information of host country on political stability, cultural attributes and geographical characteristic are required for sound for foreign markets. Information on economic general data on level of growthRead MoreMarketing and Maine Media Workshops1120 Words   |  5 PagesBusiness Administration (Hons) Entrepreneurship Bachelor of Business Administration (Hons) Banking and Finance Bachelor of Commerce (Hons) Accounting Bachelor of Economics (Hons) Financial Economics Bachelor of International Business (Hons) Bachelor of Science (Hons) Logistics and International Shipping Bachelor of Science (Hons) Statistical Computing and Operations Research TUTORIAL QUESTIONS Tutorial 1 To discuss administrative issues and general discussion about marketingRead MoreBuencamino1107 Words   |  5 PagesIt is an international phenomenon that travelling is more and more popular due to the high speed development of economy and conveniences of transportation. People choose to travel as a way to relax, to improve life quality and to broaden their horizon. The government encourages the development of tourism because it is not only provides employment opportunities but also promote local economy. The global scale of interests in travel leads tourism becomes one of the most prosperous industry in the worldRead MoreImpact Of Marketing On International Marketing1194 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction 1 Company background and situational analysis in the context of international marketing environment 1 Impact of culture on international marketing strategy 1 Current marketing strategies of the corporation by taking into account the context of marketing research 2 Companies international market selection and entry strategies and marketing mixes 2 The influence of Electronic and digital marketing in an international context on the company’s current and future activities 2 Future directionsRead MoreCognitive Process And Consumer Behavior And Purchasing Choices1746 Words   |  7 PagesReferences†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.10 COGNITIVE PROCESS RESEARCH RELATED TO CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND PURCHASING CHOICES CONCEPT OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Consumers are the users of final products and services made available in the business market place, marketers drive to use behavioral research of consumer patterns to determine and support decision making processes when undergoing market research for a product or service. Based on the ‘Consumer Psychology’ research by (Jansson-Boyd, 2010) consumer behavior

Monday, May 11, 2020

The Gas And Natural Gas - 1615 Words

As Alberta Energy Regulator (2016) stated the irregular reservoirs of oil and natural gas are located underground in different formations. The unconventional reservoirs of oil and natural gas are considered hard to extract as these are in the rocks where it is difficult for oil and gas to travel to surface. In order to extract those reservoirs a technique called fracturing is developed over the years to make use of the hidden natural resources which were considered unfeasible to dig out as explained in Hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic Fracturing is a very recognizable and most commonly used technique in North America to extract natural oil and gas from unconventional reservoirs as Manfreda John (2015) stated. The fracturing started†¦show more content†¦1.0 Fracturing: What is Fracturing? Oil and gas is extracted through the technique by shattering the unusual formation which has oil and gas in it. This technique is called fracturing. The term Hydraulic fracturing is widely used in place of fracturing. The Alberta Energy Regulation (2016) explains that in the fracturing process rocks or other forms of substance underneath the earth are broken down by using pressurized liquids. Other ingredients include sand or other forms of tiny particles which will help keep cracks in the arrangement. These small particles will remain there making the space flow of oil and gas to flow freely from these rocks. As per UKOOG (2013) in fracturing a well is made to access the area where there are the resources of un conventional oil and gas. The well is very similar to what we dig to get the water. The unconventional oil and gas resources are very deep in the earth so the well is made way deeper. The well for the unconventional oil and gas is normally deep. A pipe is then inserted into that well to make the flow of the unconventional oil and gas to the surface. The sides of the pipe are cemented in order to make sure that the natural water is not being contaminated. The holes are made at the horizontal section of the pipe at few places. The holes are made to crack the rocks which contain unconventional oil and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Morality, We Should Be Impartial Essay - 1474 Words

It’s natural to think that when it comes to morality, we should be impartial. And yet almost everyone thinks it is appropriate to treat certain people, like those who are near and dear to them, in a special sort of way. For example, while having food and clothing is clearly a good, it seems that I have a special obligation to my own children over the children of strangers to make sure that they have food and clothing. So we have two moral claims: Impartiality: When it comes to morality, we should be impartial. Partiality: It is appropriate to treat certain people in a special sort of way. There seems to be some tension between these two thoughts. To avoid it, we must either (1) reject the claim that we must be impartial, or (2) reject the claim that it is OK to be partial to certain people, or (3) come to understand impartiality in a different way. Why We Should Be Impartial Why think that we must be impartial and treat everybody alike? First, there is something intuitively appealing about the thought that morality requires us to be â€Å"as strictly impartial as a disinterested and benevolent spectator.†1 One might even say that the moral point of view just is the impartial point of view. After all, isn’t the point of ethics to step back and try to discover moral principles that apply to everyone? To say that someone acted impartially is often meant to imply that she acted rightly. Another reason to think we must be impartial is that it is arbitrary to act otherwise.2 AskShow MoreRelatedLegal Positivism Over Natural Law Theory982 Words   |  4 Pagesa smaller scale, the strictly legal conception is more appealing because it is broader,† (478). Spaak is arguing, his belief that â€Å"validity-based explanations come nearer to the truth,†(483) rather than belief-based explanations. He concludes that we are to prefer legal positivism over natural law theory. â€Å"That is why in this article I have been concerned with the law itself rather than our views about it.†(483) Spaak actually states that his focus has been exclusively on the law rather than people’sRead MoreMill’S Two Proofs For The Ultimate Norm Of Morality . In907 Words   |  4 PagesMill’s two proofs for the ultimate norm of morality In his argument about the ultimate norm of morality, Mill claims that the utilitarian must claim that happiness happens to be the one and only thing that is desirable in itself. He also claims that the only proof of desirability is desire and goes ahead to give an argument that happiness happens to be the one and only thing that should be desired (Selling, 2016). Most importantly, Mill argues that an individual does desire his own happiness forRead MoreThe Long Standing Debate On Ethics1253 Words   |  6 Pagesaction is good or bad. John Stuart Mill focuses on a utilitarian perspective and utilizes the idea of consequentialism and on the other hand, Immanuel Kant avoids the consequentialist argument and supports a deontological perspective in analyzing morality and ethics. Both arguments, valid as they may be, strongly contradict one another, mostly on the basis that Kant and Mill look at very different parts of the equation. Both thinkers appeal to a sense of rationality in their reasoning to differentiateRead MoreThe Element Of Moral Philosophy By James Rachels1161 Words   |  5 Pagesbe salvaged in the face of most criticisms. In substance, the nature of Utilitarianism is derived of consequence. Utilitarianism proposes that the outcome of an act should suggest whether or not said act is morally correct. Many philosophers disagree, and believe that the consequence of an act does little to implicate morality. For example, there are numerous crimes committed daily. Some of these crimes remain undiscovered and therefore result in zero negative consequence. The text specificallyRead MoreA Critique of the Categorical Imperative1689 Words   |  7 Pagesfocused on how the morality of an action was not dependant on its consequences or the intentions of its undertaker, rather solely on the intrinsic moral worth of the action itself. This concept has been challenged since its birth and been often regarded as a rather impractical and often contradicting facet of moral philosophy. Although the previous allegation is true, the ideas behind the categorical imperative give a significant and much needed challenge our mo dern day notions of morality. The KantianRead MoreEthical Egoism1656 Words   |  7 Pagesaccordance with morality. In the strong version, it is held that it is always moral to promote ones own good, and it is never moral not to promote it. In the weak version, it is said that although it is always moral to promote ones own good, it is not necessarily never moral to not. That is, there may be conditions in which the avoidance of personal interest may be a moral action. In an imaginary construction of a world inhabited by a single being, it is possible that the pursuit of morality is theRead MoreTo Ought or Not to Ought†¦ That is the Question Humanity rises from the predominant catalyst of1200 Words   |  5 PagesThat is the Question Humanity rises from the predominant catalyst of social mores that align with society’s norms. Morality, although a proverbial construct we familiarize with, fails to be defined universally. As with any ethical issue, the distinction between â€Å"good† or â€Å"bad† has been debated amongst philosophers, theologians, and even within internal consciences. Common-sense morality lacks empiricism compared to science, yet its implications hold equal weight, for a well-defined moral constructRead MoreThe Death Of An Oncoming Train Essay1145 Words   |  5 Pagesphilosophical thought experiment focused on ethics, morality and the relative ethics of choice. When faced with this moral dilemma, many people often struggle to answer when faced with that reality. In reality, it’s hard to blame them. What option could be considered moral? In a situation like that, what option could be considered morally better than the other? The vast majority of people when asked the question eventually answer that we should try to save as many people as possible. In that caseRead MoreUtilitarianism And Utilitarianism887 Words   |  4 PagesUtilitarianism proposes that the morality of an action is dependent on the consequences. Furthermore, the effects of one’s actions that are considered in this case are not the neutral ones but those that yield positivity or negativity. Proponents of utilitarianism believe that the main aim of having morality in our society is to increase the amount of good things that people do. These good things have to generate some form of pleasure or happiness. At the same time, morality has been put in place to reduceRead MoreThe Basic Principles Of Morality889 Words   |  4 Pages Morality in philosophy pursues to obtain a standardized understanding of the nature and what it expects from us. Philosopher, Socrates defines morality â€Å"how we ought to live† and the motives behind these systematic understandings(Rachels 1). The two basic principles of morality are impartiality and reason. Moral judgments must be supported by legitimate reasons and requires the impartial thought of each individual’s interest. Reason and impartially form the minimum conception of morality. Each

Leverage and leveraged finance Free Essays

Leveraged finance usually means funding a company with more debt than it is worth. Leveraged finance is used to gain specific, short term objectives like acquiring a company through buy outs or buy-ins, or parking funds in assets which generate fast and excessive returns over the cost of funding. The Sub – Prime crisis of recent times makes it important to keep the above definition in mind. We will write a custom essay sample on Leverage and leveraged finance or any similar topic only for you Order Now Implicit in all finance deals is the ‘down-side ‘or risk that a lot of value (money in plain terms) would simply disappear if the wrong calculations are made. In finance a lot of calculated instinct is based around the capacity of an entity to service or repay its loans. This also raises the question of faith – on the organization’s capacity to perform and therefore repay its debts along with associated costs, chiefly interest related, and returns. Putting a lever to something means firmly positioning it to perform a task. In the language of finance, leveraging would mean to strengthen the power of a company’s funds to attract more returns by borrowing yet more funds – usually short term.   Leveraged financing is the issue of high yielding bonds or funds borrowed from banks to fund the takeover of companies or buy outs by existing members (buy in) or an outside stakeholder (takeover). The ratio of the company’s debts (borrowings) and the company’s return on equity (money borrowed and invested elsewhere) decides the risk rating of a borrowing entity. Simply put, the company has to earn enough to repay the cost of its borrowings and make an extremely high profit for its stakeholders. If the cash flow from the operation is negatively affected by the high cost of debt servicing or interest for borrowed funds – the position of the lender is riskier. Therefore the interest or the ‘risk cost’ will be higher. (Fletcher, 288-92) The principle is utilized in investing in stocks. The price of a stock is a reflection of its debt to equity ratio at its market or book value.   Financial leveraging calculates the varying effects of one or the other in arriving at a ratio. It allows higher return to the investor. The loss may be higher too, for the company has to pay servicing costs for borrowings even if its stock is completely eroded. There are levels of leverage financing – either secured bank loans or bonds or comparatively ‘less senior’ subordinated bonds or loans. A leverage financier has to calculate how the finance is to be raised. If he overestimates a company’s capacity pay back the loan, he might lend too much at very low margins. The outcome of this would be that the financier will be unable to sell these loans or bonds. Then again, if a company’s value is underestimated, then the transaction results in a huge loss. The objective of leveraged buy outs is to acquire assets without utilizing its own capital. The following case studies illustrate the impact at different periods in recent times. The Sub Prime Crisis Sub Prime borrowers are those whose debt rating is ‘high risk’ – their ability to pay back their loans is considered weak by banks or financial companies. As compared to ‘prime’ borrowers like companies who are financed with ease, a sub prime or non prime borrower’s credentials are considered poor. This is because they are likely not to repay due to insufficiency of funds. They are then financed at sub prime or higher rates of interest than normal. This makes it profitable for lending institutions. In the USA, the bulk of sub prime borrowers are people who seek to buy houses. The majority has no stable income or is in employment which does not earn enough. Only some months back, in the USA debt was freely available to those who asked – in fact, banks fought among themselves to offer loans to leveraged takeovers and hired the services of agents to ferret out possible borrowers. But now, the markets are talking of credit squeeze. Banks are scrambling to tone up their balance sheets. What led to this problem? It is good to remember that householders, commercial banks, brokers and companies all use leverage differently. Homeowners are said to be ‘anti cyclical’ in their leverage. When assets (in this case, property values) appreciate faster, leverage – a factor of debt to equity, decreases. When asset values shrink, leverage rises. This is because householders keep paying mortgages regardless of cycles of increase or decrease in property values or share prices. When a householder takes, say, $300,000 on a $400,000 house, he has equity of $100,000 or a leverage ratio of 3. Supposing the house price was to increases to $500,000, his equity doubles to $200,000 toning down the leverage ratio to 1:5 (Kar, 165-71) Banks and companies are neither strongly anti nor pro cyclical, choosing fixed leverage ratios whatever happens to the market. Investment banks and broking houses are extremely pro cyclical, ramping up their leverage as asset prices move upward. Brokers employ specialized risk based accounting which allows increased borrowing while prices are rising. Conversely, they have to borrow less as prices fall. While adjusting to risk is natural, these brokers acted against what would be prudent judgment. To explain this – an amateur might think that high priced portfolios run a higher risk. On the other hand, a ‘calm’ market would make him cautious in anticipation of a storm. The finance professionals turn this judgment on its head through an instrument which they have devised called ‘Value at Risk’ (VAR) which considers current market values, no matter how unpredictable the market is. For example, in the valuation of complex portfolios, brokers tended to assume only recent history. A short calm period is taken to project future ‘tranquility’ for more years. So, when a real market risk is present, the ratio of VAR to valuation of assets is low. Companies would consequently be compelled to leverage more when, in fact, they should not have. Till 2007, brokers kept increasing their portfolios of householder finance, apparently because there was apparently less risk. Just as the signal would have been to buy when prices were high, the now confusing indications, based on wrong models, led to prospects of selling when   the housing markets was turbulent. As result, brokers are left with assets of almost $300 billion of hung deals- householders had simply walked away. (King, 68-71) The Long Term Credit Management Crisis of 1998 Another example of the failure of valuation models and the intervention of leveraged funds this crisis had a major impact on global markets. Long Term Capital Management (LTCM), founded in 1994 by John Meriwether, decided to deal in US and other government bonds. The idea was that over time government bonds would be identical in value if released within short gaps of each other. The rate at which these bonds appreciated would be different as in the case of US government bonds which would rise in value faster. The profit would be taken from selling costlier bonds and buying cheaper bonds. The profits did come to such an extent that LTCM had to look around for areas to invest its capital .It went into risk arbitraging -this was outside their expertise. They had to resort to highly leveraged finance to sustain return on equity. Their equity was almost 5 billion dollars against borrowings of $125 million. The proceeds were also used in investing in equity derivatives. By end August 1997, the company had lost most of its capital due to some downtrends which its managers could not read earlier –specially the Great Asian Meltdown of 1997 – and still had to pay the huge borrowing costs. Leverage had doomed the company. The Dot Com Bubble Through the early 90’s and till the first years of 2000, information technology was surging forward on extremely encouraging forecasts about its future in the world. Entrepreneurs were able to float technology companies, financed by venture capital which was riding on the prospects of fantastic returns. No one realized that these companies had nothing up front to offer which could be valued in rational terms. Huge leverage was sought in order to follow this boom around the world. The bubble was pricked as fast as it had been blown up – and companies and capital vanished. (Lamb, 434-38) Works cited: Fletcher, Robert. Art of Financial Economics: Beliefs and Knowledge; Believing and Knowing. Christchurch: Howard Price. 2006 Kar, Pranab. History of Modern American Finance. Kolkata: Dasgupta Chatterjee 2005 King, Herbert. Fiscal Fitness Today Vol. IV Plymouth: HBT Brooks Ltd. 2005 Lamb, Davis. Cult to Culture: The Development of Civilization on the Strategic Strata. Wellington: National Book Tru How to cite Leverage and leveraged finance, Essay examples

Health Policy National Women Health Policy

Question: Discuss about theHealth Policyfor National Women Health Policy. Answer: Introduction: Choice of Policy: The policy chosen for the assignment is National Women Health Policy 2010 in Australia. The policy is proposed for the benefit of health services that need to be provided to the modern women who face a lot of difficulties in expressing themselves and accessing the health care for a variety of disease that affect quality life of women in Australia. This policy is proposed with a plan period of 20 years and therefore proposes both governmental and personal initiatives for helping every woman of all age cohorts including the old age issues and have successfully being able to handle the recent crisis in a better way. Reason for Policy Being Selected: This policy is chosen because it has been seen to fulfil all the important criteria that is required from the assignment because a substantial part of the assignment has been covering the various vulnerable disorders and the diseases that attack women at every cohort (Haber et al., 2015). This is including the old age and supports and the barriers that women face while trying to access healthcare supports. Not only inaccessibility, it also portrays the various social determinants that prevent the women or become a barrier to correct healthcare services of all age (Hawkes et al., 2016). This policy is found to be absolutely apt as it discusses various potential diseases that affect them at various ages along with statistical data backed up for it (Birkland, 2014). Concise Summary of the health Policy: A very impressive fact about the policy is that it had provided a clear overview of each and every aspect that it had wanted to discuss (Anderson, 2014). By the sentence, it is meant that it had clearly depicted the entire policy concerns and the interventions clearly in six important chapters and therefore there had been no source of confusion among the readers and policy supporters (Koduah, Agyepong van Dijk, 2016). This is because they van clearly get to understand the problems that the modern women face without any difficulty. There are six important chapters after a brief overview of the policy. This is indeed found to be helpful as the readers get a brief idea what they are going to read in the coming pages or it can also provide a quick idea to those who are finding a correct policy to look over the aged people (Fafard, 2015). The first chapter usually consists of the details of the discussions and the forum meetings and the conferences that had leas to the successful publica tion of the policy thereby providing a derailed background of the policy importance. The second chapter mainly consists of the results found from several studies and qualitative researches conducted for the policy. This is a very important chapter as it mainly consists of the issues that women face and will face in the next 20 years like chronic health diseases, risk factors, mental health issues, sexual and reproductive wellbeing an almost important of all agingin prevention criteria is also mentioned (Bulmer, 2015). The third chapter mainly deals with the various determinants that often result in the incidence of the diseases and discusses issues on the social and economic front along with discussions and the challenges faced in every field. Chapter four deals with the action plan in order to solve the issues. Governmental actions are evaluated along with proposal of new plans. This indicated that political aspects are also included (Hansen, Seybolt Sundeen, 2014). Chapter five m ainly focuses on the social determinants resulting in the disorders. Chapter six deal with the broader goals that mainly aim in attending the inequality issues, governmental initiatives and others. Further developmental plan is also proposed. Therefore, from this part, one can get a very clear idea about what to expect from the policy. A very interesting fact noticed here is that the proposer of the policy has a clear-cut approach that invites no criticism of missing out important arenas (Hajifathalian et al., 2015). Separating and classifying the different topics in different chapters have provided the viewers about what to expect from each chapter (Onega et al., 2014). This policy is easy to apprehend as the readers can jump to nay chapter of interest without trying to find his or her concern in a particular arena. This crystal-clear approach should be maintained by each and every health policy rather than having continuous paragraphs with no proper headings and differentiation in topics thereby giving a mixed overview with random issues and interventions. Moreover, another very food perspective noticed here is that the policy is made very easy to read for all the readers even those who are not very accustomed with scientific and health terms. Therefore, it is not difficult for those who are academically less privileged and finds it interesting and at the same time easy to read and review it and understand what it wants to convey to modern day women (Coleman. 2014). Body: Policy Analysis and Critical Discussion: While looking into the first chapter of the policy, one can find out a clear explanation of the history that provided the background for the introduction of the policy in the year 2010. The previous policy was mainly formed in the year 1989 which were proposed after the nation realised that the women need a special policy. This policy was mainly aimed at the improvement of the health and wellbeing of the of all the women in Australia that mainly targeted of attending the risks associated with women and making the healthcare sector more specialised to meet their needs. The policy identified some of the very important issues like the reproductive health, sexuality, health of aging women, emotional and mental health and also sex role stereotyping and many others. The policy maker at that time were capable of identifying key areas where action they should have taken like improvement of health services, provision of more health information, conduct researches and data collection from them , training of different health care providers and so on. Here one can see, that already the main foundations of the current policy was already laid in the year 1989 and therefore the issues which the current policy has been objectifying are the same issues that had also bothered the women from a very early time that 1989 policy had already resulted in a study called the Australian longitudinal study that had been landmark based on the population based survey which continued for about 20 years and included the examination of about 40,000 women all over the nation. The survey had formed the main background for the introduction of the new policy in the year 2010. Participants have been surveyed for more than about four times in the last 12 years to gather important information about their needs, requirements and their feeling about the health systems along with the changes that require to be met. This is because with the growing changes in the mental and physical requirements of every generation with the social and economic changes, it had become important to introduce a new policy with the results of the survey constructed as a part of the 1989 policy. The consultation process of the 2010 policy was mainly laid after the release of the paper called the Developing a Womens Health Policy for Australia: Setting the Scene by the Minister for Health and Ageing, the Hon Nicola Roxon MP. Based on the paper, a number of women health organisation were called for meetings and conferences all over the country in not only major states but also in minor states and even in rural areas like Alice Springs, Bendigo, Cairns, Fitzroy Crossing, Launceston, Port Augusta and Taree. Thereby one can see here that the policy had been established only after thorough research that had been conducted over the entire nation. Therefore, it had included the feelings and demands of every woman from all background. Therefore, the success of the policy can already been estimated as it covered al l the issues that could have been a concern to any of the women. Gender equity, health equity, age appropriate information and services for women belonging to different age category, focusing on preventive strategies, evidence based services, developing goals for the women, identifying key issues were discussed in brief giving the readers the main subjects of discussion However, only one point that is noticed here is that the key issues identified here have been discussed in the chapter one has again been discussed inn chapter two in details. So, in this case it becomes repetitive and thereby had increased the length of the policy paper in whole. The reader may find it repetitive when going through the chapter two which is a negative aspect of it. The policy part containing the key issues identified should have included the data from the chapter one to be written together in chapter two and therefore it could have maintained the clarity of the paper in better terms. While analysing chapter two, one can find a detailed evaluation of the different types of diseases and disorders that have intricately associated with different age groups of different regions and has been able to give us an overview of the changes that have occurred over the years. Through detailed study it has been shown that the women who reported that they are suffering from ill health are usually of increased age and those having the fittest health are between the age group of 25 to 34. Then the rate of mortality increases with age and shows that the most vulnerable disease that causes mortality in the highest number is the cardiovascular diseases and blood vessel disorders although the rate of percentage has been seen to fall by a 76%. The policy makers have indeed gone through extensive research and this is evident from the table that they have provided showing the death of women in each and every age and exactly what type of disease affect these individuals in that particular age. The table is very informative and thereby helps to make the readers aware about the disease and the particular age at which the disease is most vulnerable. From the table, reader can get information like women are most prone of cancers and tumours within the age cohort of 45 to 64 years. Not only this by utilising the disability adjusted life year called the DALY, policy makers have also estimated the diseases burden faced by the females and thereby have given a comparative study of males and females which indeed prove that gender based approach towards handling of issues is also very important. Some of the diseases burden that is found to be higher in case of women is dementia, breast cancer as well as asthma which were not that high in men (Coleman. 2014). This chapter also discusses many facts that the research team have found out like about 60% of the Australians have less than adequate knowledge about health knowledge. Only 6 % of the people have been found o have adequat e knowledge required for a healthy living. People belonging to linguistic and culturally diverse background are one of the contributing factors for it. Source: National Women Health Policy, 2010) This chapter has also been seen to develop a detailed idea about why female health is to be concerned in this policy. It has been stated by the researchers on the issue that the next few decades will mainly see the fundamental changes that can be observed in the historic patterns of the fertility, migration and also changes in life expectancy. Modern day medications and improvements and discoveries in the medical fields have helped to increase the life expectancy of the people. The median age of the women was found to be much higher than the men as they are found to be 37.4 years and 35.9 years respectively. Not only the median age, it was also found that the women tend to live for more years than the males that is about 4.8 years more than males. It states that females will make up to an increasing proportion of the old and very old cohorts of the population over time. This increasing population of the female based aging population will have a significant impact on Australian health system. All these data help in deriving the entire scenario of the present day Australia and how it would be shaped so that it can meet the demands of the aging population. This chapter has then clearly discussed the four important issues stated like the occurrence of the chronic diseases. Cardiovascular diseases are said to be the most common among the aging individuals. Women are found to have really less knowledge about the cardiovascular disease. Women are also reported to be increasingly affected by cancer and respiratory diseases in different research article as well. Which is really a serious concern for the government (Yu et al.,2014). Mental health disorders like the anxiety disorders, the following affective disorder and depression have been found to be very high in the cohort study of 16 to 54 years. It is found to decrease with age. Sexual and reproductive health is been found to affect a larger portion of Australian women where Chlamydia is most prevalent. It resulted in pelvic pain, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. They are manly found in the age cohort of 15 to 19 and from 20 to 29 years. Disability along with increasing age is been ris ing as the population of aged women are also increasing in the recent era of rising scientific inventions. Osteoarthritis and migraines are found to have been intricately associated with every aging individual. Dementia is also seen to be affecting most of the aged women above 75 years. Thereby from these areas of discussion one can easily notice that the policy makers have covered and discuss each and every issue in details so that there should be a solution to the problems that are faced by the women of the country. Another interesting factor is that each and every of the age cohorts of the women have been included in the study and each and every disorder of each of the cohort has been discussed in details which had not only helped the readers but also has helped the hospital and similar healthcare sectors to take interventions and planning to overcome them. While evaluating the chapter three, it is seen that the issues noted in chapter two are mainly discussed here through a thorough research of evidence based study and also examination of different current evidences. Role of sex and gender, health impacts of lifespan are very well discussed in along with statistics for morbidity and mortality. Causes of different types of cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, cancer, diabetes, unhealthy eating and physical activities have been discussed in details along with the life style risk factors that remain associated with the diseases. Mental health and well-being is also talked about that gives us idea about how each patient need to be handled and how these issues can be avoided.. Specific interventions for marginalised women such as rural and remote women, aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women, refugee and migrant women, minority sexual orientation and others are also thoroughly discussed. Sexual and reproductive health and ben efits of contraceptives and safe sex are discussed to show how effectively things can be handled. Not only interventions about expecting mothers and new mothers are given but also correct procedures of following preventive measure and also curative measure for disability during old age, arthritis, musco-skeletal conditions, and dementia have been clearly discussed showing best results. Chapter four mainly discusses about the measures taken from the part of the government like that of the preventive action plan called the Australia: The Healthiest Country by 2020, prevention to diabetes, screening programs like Breast Screen Australia,Collaborative Cancer Research Scheme, National Breast Cancer Foundation/BreastScreen Australia Cohort study, Practice Incentives Program (PIP) Cervical Screening incentive, Asthma Management Program, National Partnership Agreement on Preventive Health (NPAPH) and many others are discussed in details to help the ordinary citizens to know about the initiatives taken by the government. Enabling infrastructure was also clearly demonstrated. Thus, chapter is entirely based on the initiatives done by the government and shows extensively how the government has been trying its best to help women coming out of dangers (Clarke Olesen, 2013). Chapter 5 mainly is shedding light on the various social determinants that have been mainly responsible for the diseases and various mental, emotional and physical complicacies. Sex and gender, life stages along with the accessibility to specific resources including income, education, social connections, safety as well as security and diversity mainly act as the social determinants and various stories have been discussed in details. They have even handled the three categories of young, mid age and old women and considered each of them in details while considering their social barriers. The detailed analysis along with the representation with impressive statistical data shows that a huge research has been gone into the process to bring out such an elaborative outlook (Linquist et al., 2016). Chapter 6 have entirely described the goals that are set by the policy makers and how such goals have been helping more and more women to be aware of the states that they can take to make their problems known to the concerned stakeholders. This is not only helping women from realising their main issues but also ismaking the nation where women not only live happily but also enjoy the best emotional and physical health (Schmied et al., 2013). These chapters are described in such details that finding loopholes in such broad studies and initiate are indeed very difficult and the government should be appreciated for their huge support. Conclusion: From closely analysing each and every chapter one can thereby notice that the policy was the result of an elaborate research and survey (Kitson et al., 2013). This has in turn helped the policy to be enriched with crucial important points that require to be addressed to make the modern women free from the clutches of the burden of diseases (Reily et al., 2013). Another important point that is well accepted is that they have successfully established the fact that women face many diseases and challenges that need to be attended with a gender specific initiative (de Leeuw, Calvier Breton, 2014). Sexual disorders, delivery related difficulties and many other always needed to be successfully handed and policy makers have been successful in doing so. It has also successfully positioned the present condition of the women in old age with statistics that show women tend to live longer than men and therefore medical preparations have to be made that way (Blank Burau, 2013). This policy also establishes different diseases that have harmed the old women for ages and how they can develop their quality life. The policy approaches in a systematic way through chapters at first discussing the background, then the issues faced by women, then how to handle such challenges, then social determinants and following factors. Hence it is a very good policy helping readers to go in a systematic way (Haynes et al., 2015). The only negative aspect found here is the timeframe. Though they have mentioned it to be 20 years but they have not kept a strict timeframe for each of the intervention which might have helped women (Fisher et al., 2016). Moreover, no discussion about monitoring bodies is made creating concern about how well the policy with such good intentions would be executed. References: Anderson, J. E. (2014).Public policymaking. Cengage Learning. Birkland, T. A. (2014).An introduction to the policy process: Theories, concepts and models of public policy making. Routledge. Blank, R. H., Burau, V. (2013).Comparative health policy. Palgrave Macmillan. Bulmer, M. (2015).The Uses of Social Research (Routledge Revivals): Social Investigation in Public Policy-Making. Routledge. Came, H. (2014). Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand.Social Science Medicine,106, 214-220. Clarke, A. E., Olesen, V. (2013).Revisioning women, health and healing: Feminist, cultural and technoscience perspectives. Routledge. Coleman, M. P. (2014). Cancer survival: global surveillance will stimulate health policy and improve equity.The Lancet,383(9916), 564-573. de Leeuw, E., Clavier, C., Breton, E. (2014). Health policywhy research it and how: health political science.Health Research Policy and Systems,12(1), 55. Dobson, A. J., Hockey, R., Brown, W. J., Byles, J. E., Loxton, D. J., McLaughlin, D. P., ... Mishra, G. D. (2015). Cohort profile update: Australian longitudinal study on womens health.International journal of epidemiology, dyv110. Fafard, P. (2015). Beyond the usual suspects: using political science to enhance public health policy making.Journal of epidemiology and community health, jech-2014. Fisher, M., Baum, F. E., MacDougall, C., Newman, L., McDermott, D. (2016). To what Extent do Australian Health Policy Documents address Social Determinants of Health and Health Equity?.Journal of Social Policy,45(03), 545-564. Garca-Moreno, C., Hegarty, K., d'Oliveira, A. F. L., Koziol-McLain, J., Colombini, M., Feder, G. (2015). The health-systems response to violence against women.The Lancet,385(9977), 1567-1579. Haby, M., Chapman, E., Reveiz, L., Barreto, J., Clark, M. R. (2015). Methodologies for rapid response for evidence-informed decision making in health policy and practice: an overview of systematic reviews and primary studies (Protocol). Hajifathalian, K., Ueda, P., Lu, Y., Woodward, M., Ahmadvand, A., Aguilar-Salinas, C. A., ... Farzadfar, F. (2015). A novel risk score to predict cardiovascular disease risk in national populations (Globorisk): a pooled analysis of prospective cohorts and health examination surveys.The Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology,3(5), 339-355. Hansen, E. B., Seybolt, D. C., Sundeen, S. J. (2014). State Mental Health Policy: Building a Successful Public-Academic Partnership to Support State Policy Making.Psychiatric Services,65(6), 710-712. Hawkes, S., Aulakh, B. K., Jadeja, N., Jimenez, M., Buse, K., Anwar, I., ... Whitworth, J. (2016). Strengthening capacity to apply health research evidence in policy making: experience from four countries.Health policy and planning,31(2), 161-170. Haynes, A., Turner, T., Redman, S., Milat, A. J., Moore, G. (2015). Developing definitions for a knowledge exchange intervention in health policy and program agencies: reflections on process and value.International Journal of Social Research Methodology,18(2), 145-159. Kitson, A., Marshall, A., Bassett, K., Zeitz, K. (2013). What are the core elements of patient?centred care? A narrative review and synthesis of the literature from health policy, medicine and nursing.Journal of advanced nursing,69(1), 4-15. Koduah, A., Agyepong, I. A., van Dijk, H. (2016). The one with the purse makes policy: Power, problem definition, framing and maternal health policies and programmes evolution in national level institutionalised policy making processes in Ghana.Social Science Medicine,167, 79-87. Lindquist, A., Noor, N., Sullivan, E., Knight, M. (2016). The Impact of Socioeconomic Position on Severe Maternal Morbidity Outcomes Among Women in Australia: A National Case-control Study.Obstetric Anesthesia Digest,36(3), 132-133. Onega, T., Beaber, E. F., Sprague, B. L., Barlow, W. E., Haas, J. S., Tosteson, A. N., ... Weaver, D. L. (2014). Breast cancer screening in an era of personalized regimens: A conceptual model and National Cancer Institute initiative for risk?based and preference?based approaches at a population level.Cancer,120(19), 2955-2964. Reilly, N., Harris, S., Loxton, D., Chojenta, C., Forder, P., Milgrom, J., Austin, M. P. (2013). Disparities in reported psychosocial assessment across public and private maternity settings: a national survey of women in Australia.BMC public health,13(1), 632. Schmied, V., Johnson, M., Naidoo, N., Austin, M. P., Matthey, S., Kemp, L., ... Yeo, A. (2013). Maternal mental health in Australia and New Zealand: A review of longitudinal studies.Women and Birth,26(3), 167-178. Stenberg, K., Axelson, H., Sheehan, P., Anderson, I., Glmezoglu, A. M., Temmerman, M., ... Sweeny, K. (2014). Advancing social and economic development by investing in women's and children's health: a new Global Investment Framework.The Lancet,383(9925), 1333-1354. Wilson, E., Kenny, A., Dickson-Swift, V. (2017). Rural health services and the task of community participation at the local community level: a case study.Australian Health Review. Yu, X. Q., De Angelis, R., Luo, Q., Kahn, C., Houssami, N., OConnell, D. L. (2014). A population-based study of breast cancer prevalence in Australia: predicting the future health care needs of women living with breast cancer.BMC cancer,14(1), 936.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

The Economic Problem faced by Iraq Essay Example For Students

The Economic Problem faced by Iraq Essay Yr 12 Economics Essay1) Outline the economic problem faced by IraqThe economic problem of Iraq is how to use what little resources they have to satisfy the countries unlimited wants. Iraq is only just starting to recover from the brutal regime of Saddam Hussein and with the Americans trying to help rebuild the process is coming along steadily. The country is very oil rich but because of previous wars many of the oil refineries are badly damaged or destroyed, this means that they have very little to export. There was a time when the country was farmed but again under the regime of Saddam Hussein to much emphasis was put on oil production on no money was put into the agricultural sector, thus the industry went broke. This had led to a decrease in exports from agriculture but it has also meant that Iraq has had to import food that it would normally produce in its own backyard. This may not seem a bit issue but over a decade it will end up costing the country millions. The economic probl em within Iraq is the same for all countries, how to use their limited resources to satisfy their unlimited wants. In their case though they have to rebuild the whole country with their resources and try and get the country to achieve a surplus budget. We will write a custom essay on The Economic Problem faced by Iraq specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now 2) Explain what type of economic system would best suit Iraq and how Iraq would decide the What, How and For Whom decisions faced by all societies. Iraq needs a new economic system after the U.S.A overthrew the Saddam Hussein dictatorship. It is obvious that they will need a mixed economy as is outlined below. This will help them to eventually get back on their own two feet, without relying on other countries for foreign debt. A traditional economic system is one in which individuals produce goods and services for the peoples own use and not for exchange. Customs and age old traditions play an important role in the way people cater for their needs. Iraq would need some sort of traditional economy to produce agricultural goods which once upon a time made up a significant part of the Iraq exports along with oil. In a market economy decisions are made according to the market forces rather than tradition. Households and firms made spending decisions according to their own private wants. The What to Produce is decided by the interaction in the market place of consumers, business and government. With the power of What to Produce belonging to the people it gives them greater flexibility in what is created. Consumers make most What? decisions through casting dollar votes in the market. How to Produce is mainly decided by the managers of businesses who choose a combination of resources which is most efficient and cost effective. They produce at the lowest cost so as to receive the greatest profit. For Whom to Produce is determined by peoples ability to pay. Those with the highest incomes receive the greatest access to what is produced. A Market economy would help Iraq because the people get to choose what is produced by casting dollar votes. It will also give them the ability to change products if necessary. The market price would be determined by supply and demand rather than on what the government say. Also most resources are privately owned and therefore the profits belong to the people and will not go the government. This will benefit the rest of the community because the money will stay within the community when it is spent and provide others with an income. .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 , .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 .postImageUrl , .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 , .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765:hover , .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765:visited , .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765:active { border:0!important; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765:active , .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765 .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .udc5f2dfd3e3bd85ff3104ab540c0a765:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: DBQ: Reforming Movements affect on the Democracy o EssayA planned economy is one where the basic economic decisions are made by government on behalf of the people and resources are owned in common, by the people and allocated by the government. The most important belief in the ideology of a command economy is that everyone should have equal access to the economys production of goods and services. This means that every citizen should receive the same wage. Decisions about What to Produce are made by a central bureau that sets plans for the production pf capital and consumer goods. Individuals have little influence over what is produced. Decisions about How to Produce are al so made by a central bureau. Productive resources are socially owned and controlled by the state. Methods of production are determined on the basis of what is socially desirable. The central bureau will choose the method that is best for the people and not necessarily the cheapest to produce. This might mean instead of using machinery to make a dam they will use human labour. This will benefit the community because a lot more people are employed, and more money is in the community. This would help Iraq because the people are going to be able to find jobs easily, and money will be available to anyone who is willing to work, this way more people will have a decent quality of life. For Whom to Produce decisions are based on the social good of the community. There is greater equality of income distribution. The State determines incomes and prices. Allocation of resources is largely dictated by a central authority. This system provides few material incentives. Moral and social incentives play a larger role, such as worker of the month awards. This type of economy would be a great advantage to Iraq because the people would have all their needs in terms of food and clothing met by a central bureau. This would create an equal society with only a small gap between the rich and poor. The best sort of economy for the country of Iraq would be a mixed economy. Utilizing the most effective parts of all the different kind of economies Iraq would have a very sound system operating in their country. Mixed Economy of IraqSHAPE * MERGEFORMAT PlannedMarketTraditionalThis would be the place to operate for the people of Iraq. Here they have the freedom to produce a lot of items that they want, with little interference with the government. On the other hand the government has enough power to keep a firm eye on what is happening and also produce what it believes to be in the best interest of Iraq. Finally there is the traditional, which does not make up a very large part of the economy but is very important none-the-less. This will be used to sustain the country and give it something to build on in the future. As you can see you from the diagram above, a mixed economy if the only option for Iraq is they want to successfully rebuild their country.